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gender and its intersection with disability

The disability gap across the seven countries is relatively large, ranging from seven per cent in Kenya to 47 per cent in Bangladesh. Not only did this activity minimize the complexity and struggle of the blind student’s experience, in my opinion it also poked fun at the challenges of the group as a whole. While disabled sons can be tolerated and often married, disabled daughters are merely a drain on already stretched resources: permanent family members, with no hope of future marriage or social mobility. It has been recognised that disability is part of a cultural matrix influenced by gender, as well as by other socio-political and economic factors. At the intersection of disability and masculinity: exploring gender and bodily difference in India ... context‐defined, meanings that, in turn, have different implications for how gender and disability might intersect. Both disability studies and queer theory are centrally concerned with how bodies, pleasures, and identities are represented as “normal” or as abject, but Crip Theory is the first book to analyze thoroughly the ways in which these interdisciplinary fields inform each other. Looking at the Past with a New Perspective: The Intersection of Disability and Gender and its Importance to the Field of History. I’ve cried reading Pedagogy of the Oppressed by Paulo Freire, seeing my process in graduate school as one of acquiring critical consciousness. Gender and disability. Course Description: This course aims to develop basic understanding and familiarity with concept of Gender and its intersection with class, caste, religion and region.It also intends to make aware about the process of socialization at home and school. I am acutely aware that this lens shapes my process of knowledge acquisition and production. Sarah Manchanda is a Ph.D. candidate in special education. Report of the Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women, its Causes and Consequences. Stigmatisation appears to be the keystone of the relationship between disabled people and their more able-bodied fellow citizens. The wage gaps between men and women with and without disabilities are just as important as the differences in their rates of employment (WHO 2011: 39). According to Meekosha and Dowse (1997: 50), “Disability is gendered, affecting men and women differentially”. Abu-Habib, L. United Nations. The CRPD document’s preamble states that “disability results from the interaction between persons with impairments and attitudinal and environmental barriers that hinder their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others”. There is a need to address these biases, and the intersection of gender and disability is one area of great concern. Murphy, R.F. I have been asked while making a presentation in front of a large group to read text off a slide verbatim, although my vision does not allow me to do so. I find comfort in talking to people who have similar lived experiences to my own. I have found solidarity with peers in ethnic studies, gender studies and disability studies, as well as strength in the conversations we’ve had around the readings for courses. The intersection between disability and gender-based violence is of particular concern because some forms of violence against women with disabilities have remained invisible and have not been recognised as gender-based violence due to disability discrimination. In this way, our conversations and community-building efforts not only support our individual health and well-being but also enhance the production of scholarly work that centers identity. Because no single affinity group meets my needs, I have sought out many groups and broadened my connections on my campus. Day by day, my connections to the work have deepened, and I see my lived experience reflected in many of the texts I choose to engage with. Consequently, many documents underline the im- portance of including the intersection of gender and disability into all levels of international development cooperation. The purpose of this paper was to describe the intersection between gender and disability, and the impact of disability on the lives of disabled men and women. (2016). Even though I straddle multiple marginalizing identities, I cannot claim authority on the experiences of those who are marginalized in any of those identity forms or other forms. Whether or not faculty and leaders in the field externally validate this belief, I belong here. Gender and Disability: Women’s Experiences in the Middle East. This experience serves to illustrate how a field focused on serving the needs of the disabled simultaneously devalues our expertise. Before I started graduate studies, my hope was that my lived experiences as a disabled woman of color would be valued as a form of expertise. Most participants understood disability primarily as a medical phenomenon, but some participants also began to attach relational and political meanings to disability. The Convention on the Rights of People with Disability (CRPD), a landmark document published in 2008, considers disability to be an evolving concept. She denied me the opportunity of providing input on and co-teaching the course with her in future semesters. The intersection of my race, gender and disability identities has led me to feel that important perspectives are unrepresented in the conversations of affinity groups based on one of these identities. The World Report notes that more than one billion people, i.e. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 25(4): 1263-1268. In assessing the stigmatisation that is at the heart of such a relationship, Robert Murphy (1995: 140) observes: Stigmatisation is less a by-product of disability than its substance. While male PWD may still enjoy some forms of relative freedom despite being disabled, female PWD are treated very differently, which may go even as far as “… imprisonment in the home, [being] locked in a single room, without any visitors beyond the immediate family” (Atshan 1997: 54). The United Nation’s Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) officially acknowledges the double discrimination based on gender and disability. Disability and gender at a cross-roads: a Palestinian perspective. Legal accommodations do not directly translate into access. I learned to undo problematic framings of disability and internalization of the deficit mind-set that comes with my disability, race/ethnicity and gender. Article 1 of the CRPD defines people with disability (PWD) as including all those who have long-term physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairments. I pushed for including the perspective of living with a disability in the course content and suggested bringing in the narratives of people with disabilities who have varied experiences in special education. Support from the P. and L. Odette Foundation will help Ryerson attract exceptional researchers who will explore the intersection of gender and disability, engage with students in the school, faculty and university, and serve as guest lecturers and public speakers. Both men and women with disabilities are made to feel ‘different’; they fail to conform to a traditionally and socially agreed norm of beauty and strength. Lina Abu-Habib (1997: 3) attempts to decipher implicit messages from the non-disabled toward PWD – a message which is not about encouragement or love, but rather involves exclusion and even dehumanisation: Thus, the strong message from the non-disabled world remains that the lives of disabled persons are not necessarily worth living. In March 2020, Women Enabled International (WEI) identified a gap in initial global responses to COVID-19: many actors were discussing how to include women and persons with disabilities in the response, but few were considering the unique experiences of women with disabilities and others living at the intersection of gender and disability. The impact of disability on women in terms of human rights violations in general, and in terms of violations of the right to dignity in particular, appear to be more pronounced than those experienced by disabled men. Despite progress in the development of disability policies and the introduction of anti-discrimination norms, much still needs to be done to shift stereotypical views of disability. It is important to engage in raising awareness and other forms of public education, to engage in further research on disability, and to facilitate PWD’s improved access to mainstream service… 5 Lessons Training Membership. Several decades earlier, Goffman (1963) pointed out that having a disability not only means experiencing certain physical, intellectual or mental disadvantages, but it also involves the experience of stigma from more able-bodied members of society. New York: Norton. The World Report does not limit itself to highlighting discrimination directed at PWD in general. Violence against women (VAW) is also experienced by disabled women. Manjoo, R. 2015. In India, presence of different societal and cultural norms have restricted access of reproductive and sexual rights to people with disability. 9 Katy Steinmetz, “She Coined the Term ‘Intersectionality’ Over 30 Years Ago. Overlooking the fact that she was speaking to a blind individual, she proceeded to explain to me how she had her students blindfold themselves and play a game of tag. Both people with disabilities and transgender people experience disproportionately poor health outcomes. (Available at  https://disability-studies.leeds.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/sites/40/library/meekosha-meekosha.pdf) Accessed 2 March 2019. Female PWD are not expected to be independent, given that they are expected to play the roles of daughter, wife and mother in relation to men. In a research paper entitled ‘Disability and gender at a cross-roads: A Palestinian perspective’, Leila Atshan (1997) observes that in Palestinian culture disability is traditionally synonymous with shame and, when congenital, is viewed as a sign of divine intervention or of the work of evil spirits. This erroneous conception of disability has been in existence for eons. She expressed skepticism about the time involved in organizing this and ended the discussion after this suggestion. In other words, disability is used as a basis for discrimination and, therefore, is a violation of the fundamental rights and dignity of the disabled, in a clear violation of Article 2 of the CRPD, which reads: ‘Discrimination on the basis of disability’ means any distinction, exclusion or restriction on the basis of disability which has the purpose or effect of impairing or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment or exercise, on an equal basis with others, of all human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural, civil or any other field. My perspective is needed. I continue to work on striking a delicate balance between accessing confidence and self-worth, while also staying open to experts who can fill in gaps in my knowledge and help me continue to refine my lens. Paragraph 61 of the Report of the UN Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women (2015) emphasises the extent to which “women with disabilities shared concerns regarding abuse, fear of disclosure, leaving and homelessness”. According to the World Report, the prevalence of male disability worldwide is 12%, whereas the prevalence of female disability is 19.2% (WHO  2011). There is emotional labor required in sitting with published texts measuring attitudes toward people with disabilities, and to see terms such as “deviant,” “inadequate,” “pessimistic” and “ego-driven” used to describe disabled individuals. Research on disability, specifically the intersection between female gender expectations and disability, increased due to this movement. Perceptions of disability appear to be determined neither by scientific nor medical facts, but rather by irrational and, to some extent, superstitious thinking. Ultimately such policies highlight societal beliefs that disabled individuals have less value than the able-bodied. World Health Organization & World Bank Group. Goffman, E. 1963. Feminist Review, 57:49-72. It can be demoralizing to read text after text in which disability is connected with deficit and still hold a belief that I can garner the respect and support needed to change inequitable systems from within. Christensen-Strynø, M. B. In Gender and Disability: Women’s Experiences in the Middle East, edited by Lina Abu-Habib. Women with disabilities have been described as being doubly marginalised on account of their disability and their gender. Gender as a result of biology has been thought to determine all manner of social behaviours on the part of men and women. For the Chronicle, disability was an intersection that did not merit attention. The research literature reflects that gender and disability are usually studied separately. I have sat in classes unprepared for discussion because I have not received the readings in an accessible format. Humility is not negotiable. Letters may be sent to [email protected]. As these women are often hidden at home, little literature is available on them. Enabling citizenship: Gender, disability and citizenship in Australia. I can only speak for my own experience and need to listen with alert ears and an open heart. (ed.) Now more than ever, there is a dire need for the elevation of the voices of the disabled in the research, policy and practice that impacts our lives. This course covers the ways in which disability interrelates and impacts how someone experiences gender and sexuality. Sarah Manchanda critiques the reinforcing roles race and gender can play in the institutional othering of disability. Such established cultural traditions are at the opposite end of the spectrum to the provisions in the CRPD that prohibit discrimination against any person on the basis of disability. Intersectionality: how gender interacts with other social identities to shape bias ... women of color and other women at the intersection of multiple minority groups. 2011. This work can also be healing. Access to education, employment, housing and mainstream social services is more difficult for female PWD than for their able-bodied sisters and for male PWD. This definition echoes the idea that PWD are “forced to claim ‘special rights’, [since] their status as citizens with existing rights (albeit unacknowledged / inaccessible) is negated” (Meekosha & Dowse 1997: 50). Instead I’ve learned to structurally analyze my experiences in the world. Women with disabilities experi­ence the combined disadvantages associated with gender as well as disability, and may be less likely to marry than non-disabled women. Arushi Garg - 15th July 2016 OxHRH. Atshan, L. 1997. It Work initiative on gender and disability to ensure that the intersection of gender and disability would be addressed, with women with disabilities playing a central role in the process. This Special Issue on Gender is part of the new efforts to transform thinking by exploring how disability and gender (as well as other social categories, such as race, class, age and sexuality) operate together to create the experiences of disabled people. Her research focuses on promoting teacher diversity and equity in teacher preparation as well as understanding the intersection of race and disability as they impact students' experiences of school violence. The World Report emphasises the different lived experience of PWD and people without disabilities. Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity. Yet analysing the intersection of gender and disability is an important initiative, given that they constitute two of the most severe forms of marginalisation, injustice and exclusion. To give a few instances: women with disabilities are twice as prone to divorce, separation, and violence than able-bodied women. Disabling Imagery and the Media: An Exploration of the Principles for Media Representations of Disabled People. Atshan (1997: 54) comments that: Because of these norms of female beauty and the role of women in the family, a disabled woman is seen as a failure on several counts. This article explores the intersection of disability and gender through the experiences of Ethiopian women with disabilities using household chores as an example. Understanding what amounts to disability is a necessary first step before considering its relationship with gender. Even those people who are allies and believe in enhancing diversity and equity have gaps in their understanding of certain forms of marginalization. Hopefully the rights-based approach available in the CRPD can contribute to a shift in public perceptions. If the petition passes, a harmonious interpretation of the statute would require that all POCSO provisions be applied to victims of the relevant mental age. Despite progress in the development of disability policies and the introduction of anti-discrimination norms, much still needs to be done to shift stereotypical views of disability. The added benefit of friendships with peers who have shared lived experiences in graduate school is that they are also colleagues in research. Gerschick, T.J. 2000. Patriarchy draws a traditional distinction between the roles of men and women in the family: whereas the male is ‘destined’ to be the head of the family, to be independent and to exercise power in the household and in society, the female has a more symbolic function and is often seen as merely an accessory to the male. Its specific methodology helps us draw on what is already implemented by grassroots organizations. Toward a theory of disability and gender. It is important “to make the links between gender and disability, as two aspects of social identity which lead to potential marginalisation from a society which is designed and run by able-bodied men” (Abu-Habib 1997:1). Pity, condescension, embarrassment, or a mixture of the three, are the reactions most commonly encountered by men and women who have a disability, from non-disabled people. Because no single affinity group meets my needs, I have sought out many groups and broadened my connections on my campus. (Available at https://www.who.int/disabilities/world_report/2011/en/) Accessed 10 February 2019. Hence disability is not perceived as an inherent feature of a person, but rather as a characteristic that derives from interaction with social attitudes and environmental obstacles, which together may hinder their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others. Both gender and disability have both traditionally been seen as a product of biology. When female PWD work together with non-disabled women, their earnings are seldom equal. The views and opinions expressed on this website reflect those of the CSA&G and unless explicitly stated, do not reflect those of its donors, partners or the University of Pretoria. people without disability). 1997. Mainstreaming and misfitting: Exploring disability and its intersection with gender in online disability awareness-raising videos. One lever for reinforcing these norms is through granting power to objective arguments and devaluing emotion, particularly when expressed by members of minority groups. In addition, for those of you who also feel personally marginalized as scholars, I’d like to share the following summary of five understandings that have helped me find the strength to finish the degree and may be of help to you, as well. An instructor in a graduate department of special education who identifies as white, female and able-bodied shared that she had developed a new activity for her Introduction to Disability course. Gender Based Violence. In such instances, disability clearly appears as a factor that exacerbates VAW. Yaroslava Kravchenko: A Ukrainian theatre director using the power of performance to take on gender-based violence 16/11/2020 Hand over the mic to: Teodora Stojilković, Serbia This type of violence uses the limitations of women with disabilities as a space in which to happen frequently and sustainably. Because she drew on logic to build her position, any challenge to this stance could be interpreted as irrational. There is also a higher prevalence of disability among women compared to that among men. Although the activity she spoke about was fun for students, I found it offensive and irresponsible that the experience of an entire group of disenfranchised individuals could be conceptualized as a game. Building community with like-minded peers and mentors is my priority. Understanding the power of knowledge production for societal transformation, and the fact that subjectivity based on one’s lived experiences is inherent to this process, colleges and universities must admit and retain more graduate students who are marginalized in multiple ways, including those who have disabilities. These figures attest to the fact that women with disability represent more than half of the global population of disabled people. 2007. In these circumstances, being disabled amounts to an embarrassing exception to the social norm: an exception rejected by those in charge of enacting society’s code of beauty and rules (i.e. It further extends an intersectional framework by highlighting the gendered aspects of the ways in which different disabilities shape labor market inequalities. Although the movement was popular in the 80s and 90s, feminists continue to discuss the intersection of gender and disability today as it relates to gender identity and sexual orientation. At the same time, we were hearing … Our analysis suggests that disability is a significant predictor of mobile ownership and compounds the gender gap. Such discrimination extends to other socio-economic and political areas. The purpose of this paper was to describe the intersection between gender and disability, and the impact of disability on the lives of disabled men and women. The WHO report (2011) goes on to depict the inaccessibility of medical equipment for many PWD. Within this framework it is, therefore, possible to observe that “disability is a marginalised status in contemporary society, one that is nearly always described in negative and offensive language” (Barnes 1992: 42). In this paper I review the intersection between gender and disability, which remains a key barrier in the establishment of an inclusive society in which everyone can live a dignified life. However, some have at times forgotten to provide these legal and necessary supports on a consistent basis. They are also the people I can go to for material resource support, to solve problems together and to strategize for systems-level change. Educational institutions have historically been structured to meet the needs of white, Christian, heterosexual, middle-class, able-bodied, male-dominated identities. Human Rights Council, Twenty-ninth Session, United Nations General Assembly A/HRC/29/27/Add.2. – a World AIDS Day message from the CSA&G, Fighting for Pure Lands: Land Purity, Polluting Figures, Male Power and Violence in Zimbabwe. UK and Ireland: Oxfam. Further, with regard to academic accommodations, some professors have shamed me for taking longer to complete an assignment, have complained about how my accommodations are inconvenient for their schedules and have asserted their authority in ways that have made me feel uncomfortable. It observes that PWD have poorer health outcomes, lower education achievement, less economic participation and higher rates of poverty than people without disabilities. The intersection of disability and gender has received increasing attention over recent years, from international institutions, national governments, NGOs, academics and activists; often using the narrative of ‘double discrimination’ whereby people with disabilities face exclusion and discrimination on the grounds of both their gender and their disability. Her reliance on logic as a response to my display of affect can be attributed to white logic and the eternal objectivity it grants to elite whites and eternal subjectivity it imposes on nonwhites. She spoke with obvious pride about her belief that not only did her students really enjoy the activity, but it also provided an opportunity for them to develop empathy for those without sight. Halifax: British Council of Organisations of Disabled People & Ryburn Publishing. Be the first to know.Get our free daily newsletter. Peers, professors and mentors who know about my disability-related challenges and associated legal accommodations care about my success. It promotes the realization of the full potential of all In a similar way disability as biology has been seen as determining disabled people’s choices and … For example, research indicates that disabled adults are four times more likely to report “fair” or “poor” health (40.3% v. 9.9% of adults without disabilities), and they have increased risk for obesity (58% v. 38%), diabetes (1.91% v. 0.68%), and cardiovascular disease (12.0% v. 3.4%).Likewise, research shows that transgender peo… The intersection of gender and disability: A primer for international development practitioners August 2020 This primer seeks to support international development practitioners improve their understanding on gender and disability by highlighting … As an example, in recent news, the states of Alabama and Washington adopted protocols for rationing lifesaving medical care that discriminated against and limited access to these resources for individuals with disabilities. What is remarkable of course is that disability and violence—especially sexual violence—go hand-in-hand. Within this context, Palestinian PWD have been marginalised and shunned socially to the point of invisibility. In 2011 the World Health Organisation and the World Bank Group together produced the first World Report on Disability (hereafter referred to as the World Report), an important document that contributes to our understanding of disability and its impact on society (WHO 2011). They understand intuitively what I am saying and don’t question the validity of my claims when I speak about any microaggressions I’ve encountered during the day. 15% of the global population, live with some form of disability, of whom nearly 200 million experience considerable difficulties in functioning. These disparities appear to be irrational. The intersection of disability, gender, and sexuality. The cross over, or ‘intersection’, of disability and gender has received increasing attention in recent years. But I have found on multiple occasions that when I have explicitly drawn on those identities to support my viewpoints, other academics have interpreted my claims through a deficit lens. ... Two such perspectives are gender and disability. Associated with this behaviour is the belief that disability is contagious and, therefore, a logical response is to isolate the disabled person (Atshan 1997: 53). The following exchange points to the ways in which entangled racial, gendered and ableist hegemonic structures have threatened the legitimacy of my insights and devalued the perspective I bring to this work. Numerous women with mobility impairment are unable to access breast and cervical cancer screening because examination tables are not height-adjustable and mammography equipment only accommodates women who are able to stand (WHO 2011: 71). grouped by disability status and racial/ethnic identity, reflects that individuals who live at this intersection of race and disability experience disproportionate levels of financial distress. For example, it was great to see the several references to women and girls with disabilities in the Department for International Development’s updated Strategic … It is important to engage in raising awareness and other forms of public education, to engage in further research on disability, and to facilitate PWD’s improved access to mainstream services such as health-care, transport, education and housing. Report ( 2011 ) goes on to depict the gender and its intersection with disability of medical equipment for many PWD not limit to... 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